Four species of cacti (Carnegiea gigantea, Cylindropuntia cholla, C. fulgida and C. imbricata) and six tree species were originally selected for this project: three species of Dalbergia (D. granadillo, D. retusa and D. stevensonii) and three species of Swietenia (S. humilis, S. macrophylla and S. mahagoni).
All the priority cactus species occur in Mexico, as do the tree species D. granadillo, D. stevensonii, S. humilis and S. macrophylla. Dalbergia retusa is found in Mexico, but is believed to be an introduced species. Carnegiea gigantea, C. fulgida, C. imbricata and S. mahagoni are native to the United States. None of the priority timber species occurs in Canada.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has assessed S. mahagoni as Endangered and D. retusa, S. humilis and S. macrophylla as Vulnerable. However, the status of these species has not been updated since 1998. Whether the IUCN rankings reflect their current conservation status is not clear. Dalbergia granadillo and D. stevensonii have not been assessed by the IUCN, and each of the cactus species has been assessed as Least Concern.
In Mexico, C. gigantea is considered Threatened and D. granadillo is Endangered. In the United States, harvest of C. gigantea on National Park Service lands is illegal and the species is protected in the state of Arizona. Swietenia mahagoni is protected in the State of Florida.
Regional training workshop on capacity assessment on wood identification for the trade of CITES-listed priority timber species
this workshop will bring together policy makers, enforcement officers, CITES authorities, researchers, producers, and industry representatives to: 1) share information and perspectives on how to improve the sustainability of timber trade, as well as the basis, methodologies and tools for identifying wood from six timber species: Dalbergia granadillo, D. retusa, D. stevensonii, Swietenia humilis, S. macrophylla and S. mahagoni; and 2) strengthen the enforcement of applicable CITES provisions and laws regulating timber trade in North America.
NDF protocols for D. stevensonii and D. granadillo
Mexican CITES and forestry authorities, in collaboration with academia and nongovernmental organizations and the forestry sector, with assistance from US experts, should support research on the population dynamics, reproductive biology and conservation of D. stevensonii and D. granadillo, to establish protocols for preparing non-detrimental findings for exports of these species.
In Canada and the United States, Cylindropuntia wood is sold primarily for use in aquariums and terrariums. In most cases, Cylindropuntia is sold simply as “cholla wood,” with no indication of the species. There is no significant market for Cylindropuntia wood in Mexico. The woody ribs of C. gigantea are used to build fencing, roofs, and parts of furniture in the United States and Mexico. The US market for C. gigantea wood is small and there is no significant Canadian market for the species. In Mexico, the high demand for C. gigantea wood encourages the over-harvest and illegal harvest of the species. The impact of illegal harvest is exacerbated by loss of habitat due to agricultural, mining and tourism activities.
Dalbergia wood is used to manufacture fine furniture, musical instruments and other specialty objects. The Canadian and US markets for Dalbergia are small and specialized. Wood from D. retusa, D. stevensonii and S. macrophylla is available for sale in Canada and the United States. The wood from these species is less common in Canada, and D. stevensonii is especially rare.
Lumber from S. mahagoni is not readily available for sale in North America. Swietenia humilis lumber is not commonly sold in Canada or the United States, and is not readily available in international trade. The availability of S. humilis wood in Mexico is unclear, as most sellers offer “caoba” (Swietenia) wood for sale, but do not provide the species. Swietenia macrophylla wood is the most economically important product of any of the priority timber species.
|Carnegiea gigantea||Saguaro, giant cactus|
|Cylindropuntia cholla||Cholla, chain-link cholla|
|Cylindropuntia fulgida||Jumping cholla|
|Cylindropuntia imbricata||Tree cholla|
|Dalbergia granadillo||Cocobolo, rosewood|
|Dalbergia retusa||Cocobolo, rosewood|
|Dalbergia stevensonii||Honduras rosewood, rosewood|
|Swietenia humilis||Honduras mahogany, Mexican mahogany, Pacific Coast mahogany|
|Swietenia macrophylla||Big leaf (big-leaf/bigleaf) mahogany, large-leaved mahogany, Brazilian mahogany, Honduras mahogany|
|Swietenia mahagoni||American mahogany, Cuban mahogany, small-leaved mahogany, West Indian mahogany|